What does it mean when people ask for a certain type of roast? Do they even know what it means or are they looking for a certain flavor? Being a specialty grade coffee roaster, we do not often refer to roast types alone since our goal is to bring out all the natural and wonderful flavors of the bean itself. Specialty grade beans are grown on purpose and are organic, fair-trade, low in acidity and not inherently bitter so it is easy to concentrate and talk solely about flavor.
For most other grades of beans (commercial, premium, gourmet), talking about the roast is way more important since there is high acidity and inherent bitterness to deal with.
Let’s start with how the bean looks BEFORE the roast. Pictured below is the “green bean” which is how the bean looks when we receive it at our dock.
22 °C (72 °F) Green Beans
Can be stored for one to two years.
Next, we will look at the stages and temperatures that the beans go through while in the roaster. This initial phase is the “drying phase” when they lose water and increase in size:
165 °C (329 °F) Drying Phase
As the coffee bean stays in the roaster, the beans will eventually crack from the heat. Unlike popcorn, it does not change its shape too much but there is an audible sound. Kept in the heat longer, you will hear it crack again. These two “cracks” are applicably called “the first crack” and “the second crack”. Each roast level below is described with basic temperatures and cracks. What it does not tell you are the amazing artisanship it takes on behalf of the roast master to actually bring it to that temperature, the monitoring of air flow, timing and great instinct needed to produce an outstanding roasted bean. Dark roasts are not synonymous with strong or bold flavors. The better the bean, the more you will taste and understand how flavors are brought out by a particular roast.
The Cinnamon Roast is the very lightest roast level and is completed BEFORE the first crack. It is almost tea-like in its character. It is light brown in color with toasted grain flavors and sharp acidic tones.
196 °C (385 °F) Cinnamon Roast
The New England Roast is preferred by some specialty roasters because it highlights the coffee’s origin characteristics and acidic complexity. It is moderate light brown but still varicolored in appearance. At Tap Dancers Specialty Coffee, we occasionally use this roast when we roast some of our more exotic beans.
205 °C (401 °F) New England Roast
The American Roast is completed during the first crack which enables it to preserve the bean’s original character. It is medium light brown.
210 °C (410 °F) American Roast
The City Roast is the most common roast for specialty grade coffee roaster. It is finished after the first crack and is a medium brown color. The multiple varieties of the character of the bean are very apparent while tasting (cupping). With this roast, we are able to detect most of the beans flavors and can then decide whether to roast darker or lighter to bring out a distinct flavor. At Tap Dancers Specialty Coffee, we currently use this roast for our Guatemalan Pena Blanca.
219 °C (426 °F) City Roast
The Full City Roast is completed at the beginning of the second crack. It is a medium dark brown and depending on the bean, may have a very light oil sheen. You will begin to taste more of the lower notes in the coffee. At Tap Dancers Specialty Coffee, we currently use this roast for our Kenya Kamviu Dark.
225 °C (437 °F) Full City Roast
The Vienna Roast is completed right in the middle of the second crack. Most of the bean’s original characteristics are overshadowed and a more bitter-sweet, deeper caramel-y flavor will surface. The color is moderate dark brown which may have a light oil sheen. At Tap Dancers Specialty Coffee, this is the absolute furthest we will go on the roast. We are currently using this roast for our Ethiopian Wata Dara.
230 °C (446 °F) Vienna Roast
The next 3 roasts are used by many roasters or coffee shops that do not sell specialty grade beans or blends with lower grade beans. They are roasts that use various stages of burning the bean. Many lower grades of beans are inherently very acidic and bitter so by roasting them darker, they can sometimes take out the bitterness and most of the acidity. At Tap Dancers Specialty Coffee our business’ vision is to bring out inherent flavors of the original bean so we have chosen not do the following roast profiles. We are not snobs however in understanding the fact that there are many people around the world who have acquired a taste for these roasts and when these roast lovers do not find what they are looking for with us, we do not mind letting them know that we respect their taste and even refer them to other roasters that we know can fulfill the taste they are looking for.
The French Roast is completed at the end of the second crack. Very little of the inherent flavors of the original bean remain and the taste of the bean now has burnt undertones and diminished acidity. The beans are dark brown and have a shiny oily appearance.
240 °C (464 °F) French Roast
The Italian Roast which is completed at least 20 seconds after the second crack. It is very dark brown and very shiny with very distinct burnt tones, a thin body and almost no hints of acidity.
245 °C (473 °F) Italian Roast
The Spanish Roast is completed long after the second crack is finished. Its color is almost black (extremely dark brown) and the beans are very shiny and oily. Charcoal and tar tones dominate the taste with a flat, thin body and no hints of acidity.
250 °C (482 °F) Spanish Roast